In particular, the TPP excluded China. It was intentional. It is expected to offset China and India`s trade dominance in East Asia. The TPP has reportedly apologised to the United States for intervening in trade disputes in the oil-rich South China Sea. China has strengthened its army to support its abuses in the region. The Trump administration « thinks they have more influence than they do, and they`re overplaying their hand, » Antonio Ortiz-Mena, a former Mexican trade negotiator, told Foreign Policy. « Mexico has other options – they may not be ideal, but they are options that didn`t exist 25 years ago. » « We are proud… Show the world that progressive trade is the way forward, that fair, balanced and principled trade is the right thing to do and that citizens are at the forefront of the world in terms of trade, » said Canadian Trade Minister Francois-Phillippe Champagne. In December 2011, certain patent and copyright enforcement provisions purportedly contained in the US proposal on the agreement were criticized as overly restrictive, beyond the provisions of the Korea-US trade agreement and the anti-counterfeiting trade agreement (ACAC).   On the economic side of the equation, the Obama administration and many trade economists argued that lower tariffs and improved market access to the agreement had lowered consumer prices, stimulated cross-border investment and boosted U.S. exports. More coherent rules and market-oriented reforms in developing countries such as Vietnam and Malaysia would make all affected economies more efficient and improve productivity and growth. Dean Baker argued that Article 18.78, which requires countries to ensure that they should protect trade secrets and criminally prosecute offenders, could be used to enforce non-competition agreements.
 Baker points out that California`s success is due in part to the state`s failure to authorize the application of non-compete agreements, which has allowed technology workers to give up their jobs and work for another company.  TRANS-PACIFIC STRATEGIC ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP (P4) (2005) The Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership, consisting of four countries (P4) – Brunei, Chile, New Zealand and Singapore – will be signed in 2005. This is the first free trade agreement between Asia, the Pacific and America. The EU is trying to conclude trade agreements with any country in the TPP: since 2013, there has been talk of a free trade agreement between the EU and Japan, and in 2015 the EU presented its new Asia-Pacific trade improvement strategy entitled `Trade for All`.  Chilean Foreign Minister Heraldo Munoz said the agreement was a strong signal « against protectionist pressures for a world of trade. »